spamassassin(1) -- Linux man page
NAMEspamassassin - mail filter to identify spam using text analysis
SYNOPSISspamassassin [options] [ < mailmessage | path ... ]
spamassassin -d [ < mailmessage | path ... ]
spamassassin -r [ < mailmessage | path ... ]
spamassassin -k [ < mailmessage | path ... ]
spamassassin -W|-R [ < mailmessage | path ... ]
-L, --local Local tests only (no online tests) -r, --report Report message as spam -k, --revoke Revoke message as spam -d, --remove-markup Remove spam reports from a message -C path, --configpath=path, --config-file=path Path to standard configuration dir -p prefs, --prefspath=file, --prefs-file=file Set user preferences file --siteconfigpath=path Path for site configs (def: /etc/mail/spamassassin) -x, --nocreate-prefs Don't create user preferences file -e, --exit-code Exit with a non-zero exit code if the tested message was spam --mbox read in messages in mbox format --mbx read in messages in UW mbx format -t, --test-mode Pipe message through and add extra report to the bottom --lint Lint the rule set: report syntax errors -W, --add-to-whitelist Add addresses in mail to whitelist (AWL) --add-to-blacklist Add addresses in mail to blacklist (AWL) -R, --remove-from-whitelist Remove all addresses found in mail from whitelist (AWL) --add-addr-to-whitelist=addr Add addr to whitelist (AWL) --add-addr-to-blacklist=addr Add addr to blacklist (AWL) --remove-addr-from-whitelist=addr Remove addr from whitelist (AWL) -D, --debug [area=n,...] Print debugging messages -V, --version Print version -h, --help Print usage message
DESCRIPTIONSpamAssassin is a mail filter to identify spam using text analysis and several internet-based realtime blacklists.
Using its rule base, it uses a wide range of heuristic tests on mail headers and body text to identify ``spam'', also known as unsolicited commercial email.
Once identified, the mail is then tagged as spam for later filtering using the user's own mail user-agent application.
SpamAssassin also includes support for reporting spam messages to collaborative filtering databases, such as Vipul's Razor ( http://razor.sourceforge.net/ ).
The default tagging operations that take place are detailed in ``TAGGING''.
By default, message(s) are read in from STDIN (< mailmessage), or from specified files and directories (path ...) STDIN and files are assumed to be in file format, with a single message per file. Directories are assumed to be in a format where each file in the directory contains only one message (directories are not recursed and filenames containing whitespace or beginning with ``.'' or ``,'' are skipped). The options --mbox and --mbx can override the assumed format, see the appropriate OPTION information below.
- -e, --error-code, --exit-code
- Exit with a non-zero error code, if the message is determined to be spam.
- -h, --help
- Print help message and exit.
- -t, --test-mode
Test mode. Pipe message through and add extra report. Note that the report
text assumes that the message is spam, since in normal use it is only visible
in this case. Pay attention to the score instead.
If you run this with -d, the message will first have SpamAssassin markup removed before being tested.
If you run tests with the auto-whitelist enabled, the score result will be added to the AWL. This may not be what you want to do. If it is not, then disable the auto-whitelist.
- -r, --report
Report this message as manually-verified spam. This will submit the mail
message read from STDIN to various spam-blocker databases. Currently,
these are the Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse
"http://pyzor.sourceforge.net/", Vipul's Razor
"http://razor.sourceforge.net/", and SpamCop "http://www.spamcop.net/".
If the message contains SpamAssassin markup, the markup will be stripped out automatically before submission. The support modules for DCC, Pyzor, and Razor must be installed for spam to be reported to each service. SpamCop reports will have greater effect if you register and set the "spamcop_to_address" option.
The message will also be submitted to SpamAssassin's learning systems; currently this is the internal Bayesian statistical-filtering system (the BAYES rules). (Note that if you only want to perform statistical learning, and do not want to report mail to third-parties, you should use the "sa-learn" command directly instead.)
- -k, --revoke
Revoke this message. This will revoke the mail message read from STDIN from
various spam-blocker databases. Currently, these are Vipul's Razor.
Revocation support for the Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse, Pyzor, and SpamCop is not currently available.
If the message contains SpamAssassin markup, the markup will be stripped out automatically before submission. The support modules for Razor must be installed for spam to be revoked from the service.
The message will also be submitted as 'ham' (non-spam) to SpamAssassin's learning systems; currently this is the internal Bayesian statistical-filtering system (the BAYES rules). (Note that if you only want to perform statistical learning, and do not want to report mail to third-parties, you should use the "sa-learn" command directly instead.)
- Syntax check (lint) the rule set and configuration files, reporting typos and rules that do not compile correctly. Exits immediately with 0 if there are no errors, or greater than 0 if any errors are found.
- -W, --add-to-whitelist
- Add all email addresses, in the headers and body of the mail message read from STDIN, to the automatic whitelist. Note that you must be running "spamassassin" or "spamd" with the auto-whitelist enabled for this to work.
- Add all email addresses, in the headers and body of the mail message read from STDIN, to the automatic whitelist with a high score (ensuring they will be ''blacklisted''). Note that you must be running "spamassassin" or "spamd" with the auto-whitelist enabled.
- -R, --remove-from-whitelist
Remove all email addresses, in the headers and body of the mail message read
from STDIN, from the automatic whitelist. STDIN must contain a full email
message, so to remove a single address you should use
Note that you must be running "spamassassin" or "spamd" with the auto-whitelist enabled.
- Add the named email address to the automatic whitelist. Note that you must be running "spamassassin" or "spamd" with the auto-whitelist enabled.
- Add the named email address to the automatic whitelist with a high score (ensuring they will be ''blacklisted''). Note that you must be running "spamassassin" or "spamd" with the auto-whitelist enabled.
- Remove the named email address from the automatic whitelist. Note that you must be running "spamassassin" or "spamd" with the auto-whitelist enabled.
- -L, --local
Do only the ''local'' tests, ones that do not require an internet connection to
operate. Normally, SpamAssassin will try to detect whether you are connected
to the net before doing these tests anyway, but for faster checks you may wish
to use this.
Note that SpamAssassin's network rules are run in parallel. This can cause overhead in terms of the number of file descriptors required if --local is not used; it is recommended that the minimum limit on fds be raised to at least 256 for safety.
- -d, --remove-markup
Remove SpamAssassin markup (the ``SpamAssassin results'' report, X-Spam-Status
headers, etc.) from the mail message. The resulting message, which will be
more or less identical to the original, pre-SpamAssassin input, will be output
(Note: the message will not be exactly identical; some headers will be reformatted due to some features of the Mail::Internet package, but the body text will be.)
- -C path, --configpath=path, --config-file=path
- Use the specified path for locating the distributed configuration files. Ignore the default directories (usually "/usr/share/spamassassin" or similar).
- Use the specified path for locating site-specific configuration files. Ignore the default directories (usually "/etc/mail/spamassassin" or similar).
- -p prefs, --prefspath=prefs, --prefs-file=prefs
- Read user score preferences from prefs (usually "$HOME/.spamassassin/user_prefs").
- -D [area=n,...], --debug [area=n,...]
Produce diagnostic output. The level of diagnostic output can be set for each
area separately; area is the area of the code to instrument, and n is
a positive or negative number indicating the debug level or bitmask for that
area of code. For example, to produce diagnostic output on all rules that
spamassassin -D rulesrun=255
- -x, --nocreate-prefs
- Disable creation of user preferences file.
- Specify that the input message(s) are in mbox format. mbox is a standard Unix message folder format.
- Specify that the input message(s) are in UW .mbx format. mbx is the mailbox format used within the University of Washington's IMAP implementation; see "http://www.washington.edu/imap/".
CONFIGURATION FILESThe rule base, text templates, and rule description text are loaded from the configuration files.
By default, configuration data is loaded from the first existing directory in: /usr/share/spamassassin; /usr/share/spamassassin; /usr/local/share/spamassassin; /usr/share/spamassassin .
Site-specific configuration data is used to override any values which had already been set. This is loaded from the first existing directory in: /etc/mail/spamassassin; /usr/etc/mail/spamassassin; /usr/etc/spamassassin; /usr/local/etc/spamassassin; /usr/pkg/etc/spamassassin; /usr/etc/spamassassin; /etc/mail/spamassassin; /etc/spamassassin .
Spamassassin will read *.cf in these directories, in alphanumeric order within each directory (similar to SysV-style startup scripts). In other words, it will read 10_misc.cf before 50_scores.cf and 20_body_tests.cf before 20_head_test.cf. Options in later files will override earlier files.
The user preferences (such as scores to attach to each rule), are loaded from the file specified in the -p argument. If this is not specified, ~/.spamassassin/user_prefs is used if it exists. "spamassassin" will create this file if it does not exist, using user_prefs.template as a template. This file will be looked for in: /etc/mail/spamassassin; /usr/etc/mail/spamassassin; /usr/share/spamassassin; /etc/spamassassin; /etc/mail/spamassassin; /usr/local/share/spamassassin; /usr/share/spamassassin.
TAGGINGThe following two sections detail the tagging that takes place for messages.
TAGGING FOR SPAM MAILSIf an incoming message is tagged as spam, instead of modifying the original message, SpamAssassin will create a new report message and attach the original message as a message/rfc822 MIME part (ensuring the original message is completely preserved and easier to recover).
The new report message inherits the following headers (if they are present) from the original spam message:
- Subject: header
- From: header
- To: header
- The above headers can be modified if the relavent "rewrite_header" option is given.
- Cc: header
- Date: header
And (by default) these headers are added:
- X-Spam-Status: header
- A string, "Yes, score=nn required=nn tests=xxx,xxx autolearn=(ham|spam|no|unavailable|failed)" is set in this header to reflect the filter status.
- X-Spam-Flag: header
- Set to "YES".
- X-Spam-Report: header
Please note that the headers that added are now fully configurable via the add_header option. Please see the manpage for Mail::SpamAssassin::Conf(3) for more information.
- spam mail body text
- The SpamAssassin report is added to top of the mail message body, if the message is marked as spam.
DEFAULT TAGGING FOR HAM (NON-SPAM) MAILS
- X-Spam-Status: header
- A string, "No, score=nn required=nn tests=xxx,xxx autolearn=(ham|spam|no|unavailable|failed)" is set in this header to reflect the filter status.
Added headers are fully configurable via the add_header configuration option. Please see the manpage for Mail::SpamAssassin::Conf(3) for more information.
INSTALLATIONThe spamassassin command is part of the Mail::SpamAssassin Perl module. Install this as a normal Perl module, using "perl -MCPAN -e shell", or by hand.
SEE ALSOsa-learn(1) spamd(1) spamc(1) Mail::SpamAssassin::Conf(3) Mail::SpamAssassin(3)
AUTHORSThe SpamAssassin(tm) Project <http://spamassassin.apache.org/>
COPYRIGHTSpamAssassin is distributed under the Apache License, Version 2.0, as described in the file "LICENSE" included with the distribution.