chmod(2) -- Linux man page
NAMEchmod, fchmod - change permissions of a file
DESCRIPTIONThe mode of the file given by path or referenced by fildes is changed.
Modes are specified by or'ing the following:
- 04000 set user ID on execution
- 02000 set group ID on execution
- 01000 sticky bit
- S_IRUSR (S_IREAD)
- 00400 read by owner
- S_IWUSR (S_IWRITE)
- 00200 write by owner
- S_IXUSR (S_IEXEC)
- 00100 execute/search by owner
- 00040 read by group
- 00020 write by group
- 00010 execute/search by group
- 00004 read by others
- 00002 write by others
00001 execute/search by others
The effective UID of the process must be zero or must match the owner of the file.
If the effective UID of the process is not zero and the group of the file does not match the effective group ID of the process or one of its supplementary group IDs, the S_ISGID bit will be turned off, but this will not cause an error to be returned.
Depending on the file system, set user ID and set group ID execution bits may be turned off if a file is written. On some file systems, only the super-user can set the sticky bit, which may have a special meaning. For the sticky bit, and for set user ID and set group ID bits on directories, see stat(2).
On NFS file systems, restricting the permissions will immediately influence already open files, because the access control is done on the server, but open files are maintained by the client. Widening the permissions may be delayed for other clients if attribute caching is enabled on them.
RETURN VALUEOn success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
ERRORSDepending on the file system, other errors can be returned. The more general errors for chmod are listed below:
- The effective UID does not match the owner of the file, and is not zero.
- The named file resides on a read-only file system.
- path points outside your accessible address space.
- path is too long.
- The file does not exist.
- Insufficient kernel memory was available.
- A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
- Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.
- Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.
- An I/O error occurred.
The general errors for fchmod are listed below:
- The file descriptor fildes is not valid.
- See above.
- See above.
- See above.
CONFORMING TOThe chmod call conforms to SVr4, SVID, POSIX, X/OPEN, 4.4BSD. SVr4 documents EINTR, ENOLINK and EMULTIHOP returns, but no ENOMEM. POSIX.1 does not document EFAULT, ENOMEM, ELOOP or EIO error conditions, or the macros S_IREAD, S_IWRITE and S_IEXEC.
The fchmod call conforms to 4.4BSD and SVr4. SVr4 documents additional EINTR and ENOLINK error conditions. POSIX requires the fchmod function if at least one of _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES and _POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS is defined, and documents additional ENOSYS and EINVAL error conditions, but does not document EIO.
SEE ALSOopen(2), chown(2), execve(2), stat(2)